What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a disease in which the amount of glucose in the patient’s blood (blood sugar level) exceeds the requirement. This can happen for two reasons: either your body is not producing sufficient insulin or your cells. Insulin isn’t being produced, so it’s not reacting. Insulin is a hormone that controls the metabolism of carbohydrates and fat in our bodies. Metabolism refers to the process by which the body digests food to get energy and development.
The food that we eat is converted into energy which is called glucose. Now the work is to deliver this energy/glucose into the millions of cells present in our body, and this work is possible only when our pancreas (pancreas) produces insulin in sufficient quantity. Glucose cannot enter cells without insulin. And then our cells burn the glucose and energize the body. If this process is not carried out properly, diabetes develops.
In a normal healthy person, the level of glucose in the blood before eating is 70 – 100 mg/dl. This level becomes 120 – 140 mg/dl after eating and then gradually decreases.
Types of diabetes
Diabetes is of 4 types
- Type 1 diabetes: This happens when your body stops making insulin. In such a situation, the patient has to give insulin from outside. It is also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or IDDM.
- Type 2 diabetes: This happens when your body does not react to the insulin being produced. It is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or NIDDM.
- Prediabetes: It’s defined as having blood sugar levels that are higher than usual but not high enough to warrant a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes: It is defined as elevated blood sugar levels throughout pregnancy. This kind of diabetes is caused by insulin-blocking substances generated by the placenta.
Diabetes mellitus – which involves high blood sugar levels and can occur as type 1 or type 2 — is common and often referred to simply as diabetes. It is a rare disorder that produces a fluid imbalance in the body. This imbalance causes you to produce a lot of urine. Even if you have anything to drink, it makes you really thirsty.
Causes of Diabetes
Type 1 – The immune system attacks insulin-producing pancreatic cells, resulting in type 1 diabetes. The body’s failure to create enough insulin to operate properly causes diabetes. The body is attacking itself and this is referred to as an autoimmune reaction or autoimmune cause. There are no specific diabetes causes of type 1 diabetes. The following causes:
- Viral or bacterial illness
- Chemical toxins in food
- Unidentified component producing autoimmune reaction
- Underlying genetic propensity may also be a type 1 diabetes cause
Type 2 – Type 2 diabetes causes are frequently complex, which means that more than one diabetes cause is at work. A family history of type 2 diabetes is sometimes the most overpowering risk. This is the most likely cause of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has several risk factors, any or all of which enhance the likelihood of getting the illness like:
- Living a sedentary lifestyle
- Aging Bad diet
- Another type 2 diabetes reason such as pregnancy or illness might also be type 2 diabetes risk factors.
Gestational diabetes: It occurs during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. The placenta secretes hormones that reduce the sensitivity of a pregnant woman’s cells to the effects of insulin. This can result in elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy. When they become pregnant or acquire an excessive amount of weight throughout their pregnancy, women who are overweight are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Consult your doctor if you are having these diabetes symptoms:
- A lot of urination, often at night
- Feeling very thirsty
- Lose weight without trying
- Very hungry
- Blurry vision
- Have numb or tingling hands or feet
- Feel very tired
- Have very dry skin
- Sores that heal slowly
- More infections than usual
Foods to avoid in diabetes?
Foods and drinks to limit include
- fried foods and other foods high in saturated fat and trans fat
- foods high in salt also called sodium
- sweets, such as baked goods, candy, and ice cream
- beverages with added sugars, such as juice, regular soda, and regular sports or energy drinks
Drink water instead of sugary drinks. Use a sugar replacement in your coffee or tea. If you drink alcohol, limit yourself to no more than one drink per day if you’re a woman and two drinks per day if you’re a male. Alcohol can cause your blood glucose level to drop too low if you use insulin or diabetic medications that enhance the amount of insulin your body produces. This is particularly true if you haven’t eaten in a long time. When drinking alcohol, it is essential to consume some food.
What foods can I eat if I have diabetes?
You may be concerned that having diabetes will force you to forego items you enjoy. Therefore, the good news is that you can continue to consume your favorite foods. However, you may need to eat smaller portions or enjoy them less frequently. Your health care team will work with you to develop a diabetes meal plan that suits your needs and preferences. The key to eating well with diabetes is to eat a variety of healthful meals from all food categories in the amounts recommended by your meal plan.
The food groups are as follows:
- non-starchy: includes broccoli, carrots, greens, peppers, and tomatoes
- starchy: includes potatoes, corn, and green peas
- fruits—includes oranges, melon, berries, apples, bananas, and grapes
- grains—at least half of your grains for the day should be whole grains
- includes wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, and quinoa
- examples: bread, pasta, cereal, and tortillas
- lean meat
- chicken or turkey without the skin
- nuts and peanuts
- dried beans and certain peas, such as chickpeas and split peas
- meat substitutes, such as tofu
- dairy—nonfat or low fat
- milk or lactose-free milk if you have lactose intolerance
Take care of yourself
Consult a doctor online at cytomol.in, our experts will provide you the best advice and help you to cure fast. You can regularly check your blood sugar with a sugar test kit, sugar test machine, or can book-a- test online. We also provide sugar tests at home, you just need to contact us and our phlebotomist will reach you at your door.