What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a very common and dangerous disease. One out of every five people in India has diabetes. It is a disease in which the amount of glucose in the patient’s blood (blood sugar level) exceeds the requirement. This can happen due to two reasons: either your body is not producing a sufficient amount of insulin or your cells. Insulin is a hormone that controls the metabolism of carbohydrates and fat in our bodies. Metabolism refers to the process by which the body digests food to get energy and development.
The food that we eat is converted into energy which is called glucose. Now the work is to deliver this energy/glucose into the millions of cells present in our body, and this work is possible only when our pancreas (pancreas) produce insulin in sufficient quantity. Glucose cannot enter cells without insulin. And then our cells burn the glucose and energize the body. When this process is not done normally then the person suffers from diabetes.
In a normal healthy person, the level of glucose in the blood before eating is 70 – 100 mg/dl. This level becomes 120 – 140 mg/dl after eating and then gradually decreases. However, in diabetes, this level cannot be normalized and in extreme cases, even 500 mg/dl drops.
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes: This happens when your body stops making insulin. In such a situation, the patient has to give insulin from outside. It is also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM.
Type 2 diabetes: This happens when your cells do not react to the insulin being produced. It is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM.
Gestational diabetes: It happens to women who are pregnant and have never had diabetes before. During this pregnancy, the amount of glucose in the blood (blood sugar level) is more than required, which is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede the development of type 2 DM.
The severity of diabetes symptoms varies depending on how high your blood sugar is. Some patients, particularly those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not have any symptoms at all. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes tend to appear quickly and are more severe.
Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are:
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Extreme hunger
- Unexplained weight loss
- Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there’s not enough available insulin)
- Blurred vision
- Slow-healing sores
- Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections
Type 1 diabetes can strike at any age, but it is more common in childhood and adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, which is the most common, can strike at any age, though it is more common in persons over 40 years.
What foods to reduce
Salt, meat, fish, poultry, alcohol, tea, coffee, honey, coconut, other nuts, unsweetened juice, seafood, etc.
What foods to eat
Drink plenty of water, grapes, pomegranate juice, Indian blackberries, bananas, apples, figs, blackberries, kiwi fruit, citrus, fruits, cucumber, lettuce, onion, garlic, radish, tomatoes, carrots, leaves, spinach turnip, cabbage And colourful vegetables, unripe fruit.